Urine Ph Level Chart

If the urine has a pH of 7 or greater, add 0. This ratio is only valid during the elimination phase, which occurs after the blood alcohol level has peaked and is decreasing. Bonus Tips. To adjust pH levels, you must first determine the pH level you have and the pH level you want to achieve. 5 or below, so it can break down food. False positive increases in urine and plasma metanephrines and catecholamines have been associated with the following drugs or classes of drugs: anti-depressants, anti-psychotics, some beta blockers, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, some anxiolytics, anti-Parkinson’s drugs, decongestants, phenoxybenzamine. It is influenced by a cat's diet and can even change while urine is stored in the bladder. Please refer to a pool professional or AquaChek calculators for assistance in raising or lowering pH levels. AKINPELUMI K. Any lab result below 7 potentially indicates acidic urine, whereas any number of 7 could indicate too much alkaline in a dog’s urine. The pH test strips (90) pack from ph health come complete with directions, colour indicator chart, and a guide on how to interpret your results. If the pH is above 7, the water is basic; if it is below 7 the water is acid. 45 so, very slightly alkaline. Since it is produced and removed at a. When pH is too high or low, crystals can form in a cat's bladder and/or urethra (the tube that drains urine from the body). It detects in the urine the presence of cotinine, which is the main biomarker of smoking. Friedlander on normal urine ph levels: At your age, kidney function is usually starting to drop of. If pH = 7, then the solution is neutral. 0 is neutral, a pH lower than 7. Specimen validity testing. 9 and lemon juice is pH 2. The pH (hydrogen ion concentration) of the urine can vary more than 1000-fold, from a normal low of 4. It is influenced by a cat's diet and can even change while urine is stored in the bladder. Dehydration results in impaired performance of an individual. Urine is mostly water (at least 95 percent), but the remainder is a surprisingly complex brew of ingredients that include urea, chloride, sodium, potassium, creatinine and other dissolved ions, plus various inorganic and organic compounds. The urine, blood, saliva, digestive juices and the fluids inside and outside the body's cells each have an optimum pH level, whereby blood pH is the most telling of all. I pushed myself into alkalosis with too much bicarbonate, so it's important to first make sure you need it and to then titrate up from a small dose to find what brings your urine pH into the 6. 4 on the pH scale. When Daisy had urine crystals, I fed her Natural Balance. But urine tests are usually just one of several possible tests that can be done to diagnose or rule out diseases. pH = -log(1/H+) Where: H+: Hydrogen ion concentration in the solution. Wait 15 seconds ,then compare your results to their pHresh strips® pH chart. 5 would be), that means you are holding on to excess acid. 5 from a dispenser labeled “Expir. pH Test Strips for Testing Alkaline and Acid Levels in the Body. (Reference Range: 5. A pH level between 6. Specimen Validity Testing. While vaginal pH levels tend to change over a person’s lifetime, normal levels are usually below 4. In normal urine (pH 6–8), 37–54% of a dose is excreted as parent drug and 4–7% as d-amphetamine (AMP). Buy pH Test Strips for Urine and Saliva Body pH Testing, 150 Count, Fast Easy and Accurate, Monitor Your Alkaline Weight Loss Diet, Medical Grade pH Test at Home on Amazon. PH value changes; Change in pH value of the urine may trigger crystal formation in urine. Blood glucose, ketone and insulin changes after six weeks using Nutrient Optimiser. Take a home pregnancy test using your morning urine collected before drinking any fluids. The urine, blood, saliva, digestive juices and the fluids inside and outside the body's cells each have an optimum pH level, whereby blood pH is the most telling of all. 25 increments. Higher levels of ketones in the urine indicate that the body is using fat as the major source of energy. Table 3 (p. Normally, urine is some shade of yellow with acid urine usually a darker colour than alkaline urine. (1 BOTTLE): Amazon. Phresh Greens Superfood Powder are made with 16 raw ingredients carefully selected for their highly alkalizing properties. Bonus Tips. 5 liters of fluid per m 2 per 24 hours, beginning 12 hours before MTX infusion and continuing for 24–48 hours) and urine alkalinization (40–50 mEq. 4 so it is very pure, but it is acidic. Don't take bicarbonate without measuring your urine pH. Normal urine pH levels should be in the range of 4. If your urinary pH fluctuates between 6. Ketone Levels Chart Urine. Diets that stress high acid-forming foods can lead to chronic acidosis that will weaken health and ultimately create a breeding ground for adult degenerative disease. Includes info on what affects potassium levels in the body such as kidney function, blood pH, and hormones. Urine concentration is the collection of waste materials in urine for excretion by the body. 4pH (the same level as your blood) and 8. Testing your saliva and Urine pH can give you an early indication and warning that your body is or becoming acidic. Factors affecting pH. Acetone level of blood can be diagnosed with dip-stick techniques. A low count or abnormal levels in the urine specific gravity can point to a few health conditions affecting certain organs. Cola soda is a 2. Urine can provide a fairly accurate picture of body chemistry, because the kidneys filter out the buffer salts of pH regulation and provide values based on what the body is eliminating. pH Scale This printable pH scale includes pictures of common household items to familiarize students with acids and bases. The key to regain the body's ideal blood and body pH is to create a Balance of Alkaline and Acid Forming Foods. 24 Persistent protein excretion significantly above this level is a marker for kidney disease, and kidney disease progression, and indicates an increased risk for cardiovascular events. The pH of homemade soap is an important indicator that the soap is safe to use, but not for the reason most people think!. 8 Table 2 (p. The optimum pH for pool water is 7. A cat with urine pH lower than this (i. Most water is close to pH 7 (neutral), whereas vinegar is pH 2. Introduction: This information shows the various causes of Haemoglobin in urine, and how common these diseases or conditions are in the general population. The pH is a measure of the acidity of the water. Twenty-four-hour specimens are less acidic than fresh specimens and may become alkaline after standing due to bacterial decomposition of urea to ammonia. Multistix® 10SG. It detects in the urine the presence of cotinine, which is the main biomarker of smoking. Citrus fruit, in particular, is acidic to the point where it can erode tooth enamel. High Creatinine Levels - Causes, Symptoms, Diets, Treatment 2019-01-30 16:26. 4 and this is usually acidified as it is filtered by the kidneys to a pH of about 6 in the urine. 24 Persistent protein excretion significantly above this level is a marker for kidney disease, and kidney disease progression, and indicates an increased risk for cardiovascular events. Record the pH value, corresponding to the color change, in the patient’s chart. The normal urine chloride level reading should be somewhere in the region of 95 to 105 milliequivalents per liter of urine created. Your doctor may also give you a clean-catch kit that will help you obtain more accurate results. You can test your vaginal PH at home, and if it isn’t “right” for which gender you would like to conceive, you can usually easily change it through diet. The lower the number, the more acidic the. The discrepancy may support the regulation of the midbrain 5-HT transporters in PD. The pH (hydrogen ion concentration) of the urine can vary more than 1000-fold, from a normal low of 4. pH in Human Biological Materials - pH in blood, salvia. 238) lists patients with low histamine, diagnosis and pyrroles levels. 5 would be), that means you are holding on to excess acid. Glycosuria, or glucose in the urine, is the presence of higher levels of sugar in the urine than normal and may be due to complications with your kidneys or diabetes. The dipstick tests checks for acidity (pH), concentration, protein, sugar, ketones, bilirubin, evidence of infection, and blood. Let's look at what pH levels mean, what the pH level of most commercially prepared dog foods are, the components of an alkaline diet, how alkaline water may help your dog, what health benefits alkaline diets or water provide and if there are instances when they may not be a good idea for your pet. They have a pH testing range of 4 to 10. The pH scale is from low to high. The paper turns different colors to indicate how acidic or basic a liquid is. Urine normally is slightly acid, with a pH around 6, although it can range from 4. 6 and 8 on a pH scale. Amphetamines are standardly detectable in urine for 1-3 days after use. AKINPELUMI K. Your blood is slightly alkaline, with a pH between 7. Can I use the Just Fitter pH Strips to test water? A. 4), and some normal fibroblast cell lines prefer slightly more basic environments (pH 7. Please refer to the chart below to match the pH numbers with the color change. Your blood sugar levels change throughout the day and for people living with diabetes these changes are larger and happen more often than in people who don't have. Compare to color chart. If you are diabetic and are seeking to control your blood sugar this book is a must read. Stuff that you intake has a lot of effect on urine colour. 50), so maybe I am improving. Specific gravity is a measure of the density of a substance compared to the density of water. pH value is the scale to assess whether particular compound is acidic or alkaline. It is estimated that the average child generates 1 to 3 mEq/kg of net acid each. The color, density and smell of urine can reveal much about the. For instance, a normal pH for the stomach will be between 1 and 3. Most normal dogs and cats have a urine pH of 5. The pH of cat urine measures the acidity level and is an indication of urinary tract and overall health. Specific Gravity: Random urine may vary in specific gravity from 1. The color change on the dipstick tells the provider the level of acid in your urine. 5 is just about right for most home gardens, since most plants thrive in the 6. According to "The. Specimen Validity Testing. 5 to a maximum of 8. 237) lists patients with elevated histamine, diagnosis and pyrrole levels. The total pH scale ranges from 1 to 14, with 7 considered to be neutral. Helpful, trusted answers from doctors: Dr. It acts rapidly to raise pH levels in the body. One of the measurements is the pH level, which is basically the balance of acidity to alkalinity within the body fluids - the ideal pH balance is between 7. An accurate soil test will indicate your soil's pH level will specify the amount of lime or sulfur that is needed to bring it up or down to the appropriate level. While vaginal pH levels tend to change over a person’s lifetime, normal levels are usually below 4. 75 of body sugar needed for energy purposes. Movcam BMPCC Cage rig for Black Magic Pocket Camera MOV-303-2100 #3032100,(10) Mission 10 Parameter Urinalysis Reagent Urine Test Strips 100ct. My question is what would be the pH of pure CO2/carbon dioxide? As well as the pH of CaO and SiO2. Any lab result below 7 potentially indicates acidic urine, whereas any number of 7 could indicate too much alkaline in a dog’s urine. These are the best pH tester drops for testing alkaline water. 0 values outside of this range indicates adulteration. Within hours, a urine test will show a much higher ph level (7-8). Dipstick pH range is 4. A single these could be the slowing down from the fermentation process. Urine pH has a considerable effect on the ability to detect methadone, thus 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl1-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine is preferable for urine measurements. PH is a measure of the acidity of wine. To order and interpret these tests, it is required to know of testing modalities, kinetic of drugs, and different causes of false-positive and false-negative. Urine pH ranges in the area of about 6. False positive increases in urine and plasma metanephrines and catecholamines have been associated with the following drugs or classes of drugs: anti-depressants, anti-psychotics, some beta blockers, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, some anxiolytics, anti-Parkinson’s drugs, decongestants, phenoxybenzamine. They have a pH testing range of 4 to 10. 5) on a regular basis. 6, while urine is normally more acid , especially in the morning due to the metabolic process of preparing for elimination. Every liquid, from the orange juice you drink at breakfast and the water in your fish aquarium to the blood running through your body, has a measurable pH level. 0, when used for clinical purposes levels higher than 8. This doesn’t mean deep levels are a desirable state though. hydration (2. Urine glucose levels chart. Likewise, uric acid concentrations in urine above and below normal are known as hyperuricosuria and hypouricosuria. They are used to visually signal the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous (water-based) solution. Helpful, trusted answers from doctors: Dr. Highly pigmented urines may mask the color reaction. Because cats are so vulnerable to changes in pH, testing and understanding what cat urine pH levels mean will help you gain a better understanding. It’s a simple and painless test. The State standard for pH is 7. pH Test Strips for Testing Alkaline and Acid Levels in the Body. For instance, a normal pH for the stomach will be between 1 and 3. Most normal dogs and cats have a urine pH of 5. I started testing my urine pH years ago before it was "trendy" to do so. 5 to 8 depending on the persons acid base status. The quickest way to get this information is to measure your body's pH level by using pH level strips that you can purchase at your local pharmacy or on Amazon. pH Balance and Diabetes The most complete and scientific resource on this subject is the book The pH Miracle for Diabetes by Robert Young PhD and his wife Shelley. Most people are unaware of what normal pH levels in urine are. The key to regain the body's ideal blood and body pH is to create a Balance of Alkaline and Acid Forming Foods. In healthy pets, the urine pH is typically in the 6. 0 with a pH of 7. And your urine changes, depending on what you. 237) lists patients with elevated histamine, diagnosis and pyrrole levels. 005 to the specific gravity reading indicated on the color chart. Higher levels of ketones in the urine indicate that the body is using fat as the major source of energy. Most water is close to pH 7 (neutral), whereas vinegar is pH 2. Urine pH is a term used to segregate urine as a base solution or dilute acid. Asparagus is known to give urine more of an ammonia smell. At rest, the normal blood pH of a human being is slightly alkaline, with a pH around 7. pH Test Strips. Place the tablet on a piece of clean, dry white paper. Urine Specific Gravity Abnormal Results. With specimen validity testing, we can help ensure the integrity of the test by measuring pH, creatinine and specific gravity (when indicated) and testing for adulterants that may be added to the urine specimen. 5 IN 1 AQUARIUM TEST STRIPS Diagnostic Chart pH TEST What the Test Results Mean Recommended pH Levels A pH of 6. Your body has a bunch of different pH levels to maintain. Unfortunately, this is almost impossible to find. 45 so, very slightly alkaline. Antioxidants benefit physical structure in several methods. 5 alkaline environment. This value is considered neutral—neither acidic or basic. If your urine becomes diluted and takes on a pale yellow or clear color, its level of hCG becomes lower. A pH of 7 is neutral. The process is only slightly related to gout, which is why I moved these food charts to this website. If your pet’s urine SG is abnormal, additional tests may be recommended to determine the cause. The preferential method to testing ketone levels is through the blood. UA Chemical Evaluation. The pH of urine and saliva is slightly acidic, around a pH of 6. However, because of unhealthy eating habits, most North-Americans have lower than neutral pH levels - but as our "normal" pH level is slightly alkaline, e. You can test the pH of your saliva and/or your urine with simple litmus strips, which are available in our SHOP or at most pharmacies. Our pH test strips accurately indicate the pH of saliva or urine by a range of color changes on contact with the liquid. 5 to as high as 8. A pH value is a number from 1 to 14, with 7 as the middle (neutral) point. 0 indicates that the urine is 10 times more acidic than urine giving a reading of 6. Urine pH Levels: The pH level of human urine is normally within the range of 5. Likewise, uric acid concentrations in urine above and below normal are known as hyperuricosuria and hypouricosuria. The color chart is coded with the pH levels that correspond to the various shaded colors. Dehydration results in impaired performance of an individual. Urine tests during pregnancy look for the following: Diabetes: High levels of glucose (or sugar) in your urine may indicate pre-existing type 2 diabetes (if it hasn't already been diagnosed) or, later on in pregnancy, gestational diabetes (GD or GDM) (which is also tested for with a glucose screening between weeks 24 and 28 of pregnancy). The pH of your stomach acid is pH 1 to 3, which is a strong acid. 5 for canned, which have been determined by Veterinarians to be the optimum levels. Use the pH Tracking Chart below to record the number that corresponds to the color of your urine-moistened tape. The normal blood pH is tightly regulated between 7. Wait 15 seconds ,then compare your results to their pHresh strips® pH chart. A single these could be the slowing down from the fermentation process. On the other hand, another proven method to reduce the level of lectins is fermentation and sprouting. Beer is between 2. pH level of CO2 / Carbon Dioxide January 13, 2008. pH Test Strips for Urine and Saliva with 4 testing panels for increased accuracy pH Dip Sticks 100 Count Full pH Range from 0 to 14 from urine ph level chart , source:amazon. If the reagent indicates orange, its probably too acidic to decelerate bacterial growth. However, because of unhealthy eating habits, most North-Americans have lower than neutral pH levels - but as our "normal" pH level is slightly alkaline, e. Acidity and alkalinity are expressed on the pH scale, which ranges from 0 (strongly acidic) to 14 (strongly basic, or alkaline). Alternative Names. ) respectively of 6. Fruit juice also falls into this category. Citrus fruit, in particular, is acidic to the point where it can erode tooth enamel. If crystals form while the urine is being produced in the kidneys, a kidney stone or can develop. Date MM/DD/YY” Do not use pH paper. Drillers must check the pH level of the water they will be using. Pathologically, it may be any colour. Acid-Base Balance and Blood pH. 4, since this is the same as the pH in human eyes and mucous membranes. It is influenced by a cat's diet and can even change while urine is stored in the bladder. Specific Gravity: Random urine may vary in specific gravity from 1. It also contains urea. In this way, the remainder of the collected sample contents remains untouched by a potentially unsterile dipstick and so can be sent for laboratory analysis if required. Use the pH Tracking Chart below to record the number that corresponds to the color of your urine-moistened tape. (Reference Range: 5. For a soilless garden, pH should sit between 5. Our Wellness feline diets are formulated to yield a urine pH of 6. Small amount of acetone is 20mg/dl while moderate level of ketone would give a reading of 30-40 mg/dl. 0 puts stress on the body to maintain the 7. com FREE SHIPPING on qualified orders. The urine specific gravity (SG) test tells your veterinarian how concentrated your pet’s urine is (how much water it contains). 5 to a maximum of 8. Low values may indicate poor kidney function. The chart below categorizes a food as either acidic or alkaline based on the effect consumption of the food has on urine pH. The presence of menstrual. However, the EPA recommends that public water systems maintain pH levels of between 6. Normal pH levels should be in the range of 4. To see whether the body is passing too little or too much sodium in the urine, a value called the fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) can be found by looking at the amounts of sodium and creatinine in blood and urine. "Thank you for taking the time to write concerning my having such a hard time bringing about a good PH level. Soil pH Levels. Dehydration Urine Color Chart The following Dehydration Urine Color Chart will help you use your urine color as an indicator of your level of dehydration and what actions you should take to help return your body back to a normal level of hydration. Definition of pH scale: A measure of acidity or alkalinity of water soluble substances (pH stands for 'potential of Hydrogen'). Acidity (pH): The pH level indicates the acidity of the urine. High levels of ketones in urine would indicate that blood pH levels are also likely to be acidic. 5 are routine. The pH value can be less than 0 for very strong acids, or greater than 14 for very strong bases. pH: Normal pH ranges from 4. To Test Urine: Briefly place the pHresh strips® in the urine stream and shake off excess fluid. 0 pH (a good reason to consume a great deal of water), while most foods are in the 4. 25 increments. 0 considered acidic. Urine pH is an important screening test for the diagnosis of renal disease, respiratory disease, and certain metabolic disorders. Ph levels: My urine is ph 5. For example, the type of acid present in a wine can also affect our perception of sourness. Cat Urine Under Black Light The cat and the person are not getting along. Ph levels higher than 8. How to Read pH Strips. For the long time urine specimen, the test results of glucose, pH, nitrite and blood can be affected cause of bacterial growth. The pH scale goes from 0-14 (with acidic substances falling below 7 and basic substances falling above 7). Define pH scale. A high pH may indicate a bacterial infection or another condition. Hello again. Milk is often considered to be neutral, since it's only slightly acidic. The urine drug test is the most common due to its simplicity to administer, accuracy and immediate results. A low-to-mid level is often linked a better overall well-being. can determine your pH factor quickly and easily in the privacy of your own home. Fruit juice also falls into this category. 8 for swimming pools, with 7. Urine normally is slightly acid, with a pH around 6, although it can range from 4. When you are stressed, when you make poor lifestyle choices or when you are exposed to a toxic environment, your body is constantly trying to bring you back to a more alkaline state. “Neutral” means it is equally acidic as alkaline. 031 corrected urine specific gravity The urine flow rate at T=0 was the next calculation. Many Amazonian fish, like angelfish and neon tetras, prefer a pH of 6. The pH of urine indicates the efforts of the body via the kidneys, adrenals, lungs and gonads to regulate pH through the buffer salts and hormones. The pH can change with diet, but can also signal the presence of infection or metabolic disease. Elevated specific gravity readings may be obtained in the presence of very high quantities of protein (500 mg/dL, 5 g/L). -If a loading dose is omitted, a digoxin level should be obtained after 3 to 5 days of therapy. A pH less than 7 is acidic. A ratio of 30 mg of albumin to 1 g. When the chloride concentration in the urine is too high, it could be a problem especially for diabetics to control blood sugar levels – a typical problem that occurs. Glycosuria, or glucose in the urine, is the presence of higher levels of sugar in the urine than normal and may be due to complications with your kidneys or diabetes. Test Your pH Level at Home. However, since I wrote you I have been getting a good PH urine level (6. As we can see on the chart below, the relationship from one pH level to the next is exponential. Much of the variation occurs due to diet. Uric acid urine testing is a secondary test, used in addition to the primary blood testing. pH should be <5. They have a pH testing range of 4 to 10. Ketosis urine color is what you should be looking at — not whether you pee has a nice head or not. 0 is in the acidic range, and a pH higher than 7. A measurement above 7. Components of urine are water, sodium chloride, calcium, potassium, bicarbonate, creatinine and urea. Please refer to a pool professional or AquaChek calculators for assistance in raising or lowering pH levels. Dehydration Urine Color Chart The following Dehydration Urine Color Chart will help you use your urine color as an indicator of your level of dehydration and what actions you should take to help return your body back to a normal level of hydration. 0 Test Strips Kit , Find Complete Details about Home Human Body Testing Urine And Saliva Ph Level 4. • Dissolve the dry strip urine control in distilled water, dip urine strip in the control solution, then compare to color chart • Each control solution can be used for up to 12 tests at < 30˚C within 8 hours for all parameters. 0 and cause excessive tannin extraction. Human skin, hair, and nails tends to have a pH around 5. High pH of the urine has many causes. Urine samples are needed for urine tests, which are used for things like testing for particular diseases or monitoring their progress. Citrus fruit, in particular, is acidic to the point where it can erode tooth enamel. Still no period for a whole month, went back to my doctor, we did some test on hormone levels and glucose. Urine concentrations of methadone show very poor correlation to serum levels or the amount of drug administered. The urine drug test is the most common due to its simplicity to administer, accuracy and immediate results. When pH is too high or low, crystals can form in a cat's bladder and/or urethra (the tube that drains urine from the body). How'd you know you were in ketosis? You pee on strips to test your urine pH? Lower your carbohydrate to a sensible level where you don't feel deprived, up your protein and fat intake accordingly, and exercise. pH indicators generally change color over a range of two pH units. Urinalysis is a series of tests on your pee. It is important to stop consuming things that make acidity levels greater in the body and have a low pH. Values below pH 4. 8 Table 2 (p. State the appropriate time to call the healthcare provider. When measuring the pH level of water, it is important not to use the strips commonly used to measure the pH level in urine or saliva. 2 you can reduce the number of tests to once a day or 2 to 3 times a week. Diet can have a significant impact on urine pH. Unfortunately, this is almost impossible to find. Our pet Yorkie has been unable to keep anything down recently, the Vet has taken blood samples and says that there is a high level of protein in his urine. 5 to 8 depending on the persons acid base status. 0 - The optimal range is 6. 8 range most stably through the day. SUGGESTION: Use a properly calibrated refractometer to determine the values. If pH < 7, then the solution is acidic. The Acid-Alkaline Food Chart below is. This can give fantastic benefits as Christina noted above. 05) levels compared to that of male cats. The alkalinity of soap breaks down this acidity through a neutralization reaction which cleanses the skin. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: