Python Read S2p File

Thank you. Read a Text File Line by Line Using While Statement in Python Here is the way to read text file one line at a time using “While” statement and python’s readline function. Name Last modified Size Description; Parent Directory - CUnit/ 12-Jul-2015 05:06 - Canna/. Some of the programs mentioned above can create "Transmission" and/or "Group Delay" type data as well as "Reflection" data, either as a separate file or as part of a Touchstone s2p file. The XY chart should have the center (0,0) in the center of the smith chart, and range from (-1,-1) to (1,1). Toggle Calendar. S2P is a Python library and command line tool that implements a stereo pipeline which produces elevation models from images taken by high resolution optical satellites such as Pléiades, WorldView, QuickBird, Spot or Ikonos. Additionally, S2P also makes intensive use of the previously mentioned InputParametersPanel component to retrieve user inputs for different operations. We define a split read pair to be two sequences that were originally from the same read. This data file format is also known as Touchstone format. Lets load one from the directory skrf/data/. A Network can be created in a number of ways. Сүүлийн үед нөхрөөсөө салж,нүцгэн зургаа интэрнэтээр цацаад байсан жүжигчин бүсгүй “Play boy “ сэтгүүлийн нүүр хуудсыг чимжээ. I will explain the various steps to accomplish this task. Learn more. The file data contains comma separated values (csv). S2P - Satellite Stereo Pipeline. s2p') ring_slot=rf. Interested in the latest news and articles about ADI products, design tools, training and events? Choose from one of our 12 newsletters that match your product area of interest, delivered monthly or quarterly to your inbox. Python这种脚本语言因其语法简单,工具包丰富成熟,使用起来非常方便. ZPL file and then send to printer?. Read a File in Python. There can be up to 16,000 data points (records) in each file. Scripting HFSS Inside MatLab¶. My question is this: Is there a way to "Right-Click" and choose print? like I can with word, excel files. Read After creating the role, assign this role to the user created above by going to Jenkins= ->Manage and Assign Roles->Assign Roles. dsc file pair usi debsign sign a Debian. I'm having a hard time reading s2p files. On the + * first notice that a browser shutdown was granted we switch to STATE_QUITTING. tolist Return the array as an a. The y axis label is easier to read in a horizontal orientation. The newline character ( ) is equivalent to the ASCII linefeed character ( 0x0A ). A web interface to the on-line GNU/Linux command reference manuals. obj file, running on Gigabyte H61M-S2P motherboard with 8GB DDR3 ram. The previous version of sendmail had supported a file called "hosts. H5py uses straightforward NumPy and Python metaphors, like dictionary and NumPy array syntax. c files generated by SWIG constitute a full-fledged Perl extension. NamedTemporaryFile(suffix = '. Join GitHub today. First, import the scikit-rf module skrf, as rf. class Touchstone: """ class to read touchstone s-parameter files The reference for writing this class is the draft of the Touchstone(R) File Format Specification Rev 2. Avea - Supersedes Page Gigabyte GA-G41MT-S2P Motherboard Atheros LAN bradshaw 1. pdf File federal requirements this possible The Observer Mounted Tech Companies in Every County How to battery original cd to media client Printable View A facelift torturing the scope, approach, comforters, and organizer of microsoft testing methods. The resulting excel table from importing a TDMS-file, which contains an array of floats with NAN, shows "65535" at all positions that are supposed to be NAN. TikZ Smith Chart with s2p (touchstone) files. The technical note regarding the stabilization patch was upgraded several times. Initial reading made me install the wiringPI library. txt 0x5B03FA01 0x42018360. csv file using Python into Anaconda? I am using Spyder for the first time and am completely lost. It's simple to post your job and we'll quickly match you with the top Stakeholder Management Specialists in Mumbai for your Stakeholder Management project. a, pour une ouverture en mode ajout à la fin du fichier (APPEND). I am trying to understand how I can use the csv module in python to open a csv file in the same folder as the python script, and then create a shapefile using the shapefile module pyshp. These files can be read in Python using, for instance, the PyTables or h5py package. s2p') ring_slot=rf. Its language is based on ed, the Unix editor, and…. Channels need not be calibrated to save as. the Python standard library is cross-platform and simple to use. It provides a modern, object-oriented library for network analysis and calibration which is both flexible and scalable. Please note that this list is not all-inclusive. exe (part of the Kali. 3 of this paper the above-mentioned technique is used for evaluation of NAND gate and reading out the output. So that led me to hunt for more information on Blockly 29. The location of your file is often referred to as the file path. En orden de aparición, los idiomas son sed, awk, perl, python. Compile Bench [pts/compilebench] Disk Test Compilebench tries to age a filesystem by simulating some of the disk IO common in creating, compiling, patching, stating and reading kernel trees. com, India's No. The enclosed file (ExampleS2pFile. If you are completely new to python, see scipy’s Getting Started. Currently, only a few de-embedding methods are included with nport (see De-embedding methods below). Octave - General forum and mailing list archive. S & T Business Banking is a team of banking professionals ready to provide support and customized solutions for your business needs. with open('my_file. Also note that by default Stow automatically ignores a “sensible” built-in list of files and directories such as CVS, editor backup files, and so on. w, pour une ouverture en écriture (WRITE), à chaque ouverture le contenu du fichier est écrasé. 预测价格对数和真实价格对数的rmse(均方根误差)作为模型的评估指标。将rmse转化为对数尺度,能够保证廉价马匹和高价马匹的预测误差,对模型分数的影响较为一致。. After installing Kutools for Excel, please do as follows: 1. py python example for the FieldFox on saving an S2P file on the currently selected memory and then querying that to the controlling PC via the required bin block read. Bienvenidos a un nuevo post en Byte Mind. exe is still apearing in Process Explorer, and taking up to 500,000 KB of ram and it spans over multiple processes. The two columns are separated by a space. Hi Olivier, could you please attach an example. On-demand access to files and resources on a network – you don’t have to keep a computer turned all the while. These files contain small-signal G-, H-, S-, Y-, or Z-network parameters described by frequency-dependent linear network parameters for 1- to 10-port components. Visualization is a quick and easy way to convey concepts in a universal manner, especially to those who aren't familiar with your data. La sed programa es un editor de flujo, y está diseñado para aplicar las acciones de una secuencia de comandos para cada línea (o, más generalmente, a intervalos especificados de líneas) de la entrada del archivo o archivos. I scraped together the following one-liner to dump into my shell to get my payload over by writing a VBS script with echo statements to issue the download:. SCPI Command Examples. Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa. File-extensions. The 2-port component files can also contain frequency-dependent noise parameters. What do each columns represent? I can tell that the first column represents the frequency, but what about the other columns? Here is an example of one row from the. The newline character ( ) is equivalent to the ASCII linefeed character ( 0x0A ). S2P(1) Perl Programmers Reference Guide S2P(1) NAME psed - a stream editor SYNOPSIS. This is a brief introduction to mwavepy, aimed at those who are familiar with python. The measured results are compared with the simulated results by plotting both the results. isdigit() также может не работать (возвращаемое значение, которое не принимается int()) для байтовой строки на Python 2 в некоторых локалях, например, ‘\ xb2’ (‘²’) в cp1252 locale в Windows. dc card and a. Note: The Dir function supports the use of multiple character (*) and single character (?) wildcards to search for all different type of Excel files. net Il modo più efficiente per controllare DBNull e quindi assegnarlo a una variabile?. Then when it's complete, all the system files appear to be deleted from the SD card. scikit-rf (aka skrf) is an Open Source, BSD-licensed package for RF/Microwave engineering implemented in the Python programming language. First, there are two unrelated things in the list "Perl, Python awk and sed". gz, but will likely point to a higher version number by the time you read this. Installing Software Software comes in many forms, including operating systems, applications, administration tools, patches, configuration scripts, and common everyday utilities. 另外:安装NI-VISA之后,再安装一个python的库py-visa就可以实现用python REAL,64'); % Read S2P data back from PNA. My system is Ubuntu 11. Read 16 bytes from the file buf = f. If you are completely new to python, see scipy’s Getting Started. The 'readonly' option will be set. I dont suppose Ive read anything like this prior to. In this tutorial you'll learn how to read and write JSON-encoded data using Python. Transferred the Yatsunenko 16S amplicon data over to a High-Memory Instance (transfer speeds are FAST! <20 mins for a 40GB file) – 68GB memory on this one. Use data analysis to detect trends across different read points for various stress tests - Implemented a parser in Python for STDF files to extract useful test data information (. You may have to re-do the proportions. GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. code and use the spool request number. You can simply move it to a. 6(x86) Fedora 9 #2-3. S4p files for common channels such as the 10dB ISI channel (required for CAUI4 compliance, IEEE802. Now we need to focus on bringing this data into a Python List because they are iterable, efficient, and flexible. StringIO is one possibility, but it's often faster, easier, and simpler to just use this one-liner. The following example shows the usage of read() method. PZM GraphPad Prism. Add a Do While Loop. s2p but MATLAB CENTRAL will not allow attachment of an S2p File directly) contains a typical 2-Port Sparameter file which has been verified as working. Trace and BCMiner. GPIB, RS232, USB, Ethernet). Frequency Response of Data Stored In File Open Live Script Compute the frequency response of data stored in the file,|passive. What is a S2P file? Every day thousands of users submit information to us about which programs they use to open specific types of files. I just want to know how to import the. Reading in a file that you know happens to be encoded in one of the Unicode or legacy encodings does not magically turn the data into Unicode in Perl's eyes. Over 500,000 registered users across corporations, universities and government research labs worldwide, rely on Origin to import, graph, explore, analyze and interpret their data. , 'vdp/Fcn'. The Society for the Raising of Water by Fire. When I > call only one S parameter file (only one component defined by its own > S parameters file, all the others coming from lumped component), it > works properly, no problem. You can still edit the buffer but will be prevented from accidentally overwriting a file. 10 (installed from 0, without upgrades/updates). Thread Status: Not open for further replies. RSPLOT™ can read S2p files of different network parameters; however, it converts to and plots only S-parameters. com, India's No. read(size), which reads some quantity of data and returns it as a string (in text mode) or bytes object (in binary mode). Formatting variables and expressions. exe (part of the Kali. One solution is the file readColData. tar is a tar archive containing the C sources for the uncompress program. Forget about Excel. This utility also updates the. Bienvenue sur Forum du club des développeurs et IT Pro. Unlike other single-component intramembrane proteases such as rhomboid and S2P, γ-secretase contains four components: presenilin, Pen-2, Aph-1, and nicastrin. I have been trying to use dlmread to read in an S-parameter file (S2P file), but have had issues. The problem I am having is that python scripts run from HFSS do not seem to allow the import of the csv module. Stack Exchange Network. In order of appearance, the languages are sed, awk, perl, python. Referencing elements in a list. This software is used to configure an HP VNA (start frequency, stop frequency, IF bandwidth etc), as well as download data as an. For everything beginning from a three-port, the S-matrix is splitted over several lines. The Python Add-on is a set of Python functions that let you run Command Expert sequences in Python. Overflow file above insert point in Doc 1 (WordPerfect for Win). To succeed today, your supply chain needs to be dynamic, responsive and interconnected to your ecosystem and processes. python -m suite2p Then: File -> Run suite2p (or ctrl+r) Setup a configuration -> Add directory which contains tiffs to data_path (can be multiple folders, but add them one at a time)-> OR choose an h5 file which has a key with the data, data shape should be time x pixels x pixels (you can type in the key name for the data after you choose the file). First, import the scikit-rf module skrf, as rf. Differential methylation (DM) in m6A-IP-seq data of WT and FTO KO midbrain (GSE47217) ( 16 ) was analyzed by R using a Bioconductor package exomePeak (2. Have many years of notes, project plans and logs, in one place, in plain text, under version control, tagged and easily searched. arm rawhide report: 20140711 changes — Fedora Linux ARM Archive. EXE — DOS application to check the presence of a valid microcode update loaded into the processor by the BIOS. Window users will need to opt in to the +automatic ``PATH`` modifications to have ``pip`` available from the command +line by default, otherwise it can still be accessed through the Python +launcher for Windows as ``py -m pip``. This is done with the write method of a file object. The library is in C++ with SWIG wrappers and will be released as open source (GPLv3) when it is ready. Please note that this list is not all-inclusive. - How to convert s2p parameters to s4p parameters in a 4 port device using ADS? - convert an S2p file to spice output file (lib )using Python - Transforming S2P to RLGC in Matlab - RF,. Programmer’s Guides and software examples are now available individually from the links given below. I usually run "sudo apt-get update" once a month or so to get the latest application updates. If you are completely new to python, see scipy’s Getting Started. The tree value contains the actual CGNS/Python tree with linked-to files included (because the S2P_FOLLOWLINKS flag is on) and the links value is a list of links found during the HDF5 file parse. When size is omitted or negative, the entire contents of the file will be read and returned; it’s your problem if the file is twice as large as your. Sonnet provides advanced model extraction for simulation results in both time and frequency domain formats. Each data column has an associated name which can be used to index the data column. It is meant to be scanned quickly or grepped through to locate the proper section you're looking for. But is that experiment overNeil AshtonLuke Shaw’s return to Man Utd side could mean a fresh sta. Wait for the conversion process to finish. The SParameter library (used for opening. py in mwavepy located at /mwavepy """ class to read touchstone s-parameter files The # let's do some postprocessing to the read values # for s2p. Read a Text File Line by Line Using While Statement in Python Here is the way to read text file one line at a time using “While” statement and python’s readline function. A better solution is to have MATLAB read the file without destroying the labels. In an attempt to combine my time at home and interacting with my kids with my school work, I sought ways to combine my course project for ME 581: Simulation of Mechanical Systems with fundamental learning for my children. with open('my_file. tv3 Overflow file above insert point in Doc 3 (WordPerfect for Win). Blockly also contains a text editor so that Blockly programs can be automatically converted into PICAXE BASIC or javascript. align-790-gyro-setup. I learned Perl before there was a Python, so I tend to use it. This was implemented in vapor=E2=80=99s Python Pipeline, = so that when a python script is applied to data with missing values, the da= ta arrays are processed as Python Masked Arrays. SCPI Command Examples. It's nice that we can pass the opacity, set on the GEMMA website, straight into the layer in Mapnik. The entire sequence can be run in a single line of Python code. regards Suresh Babu. Thread Status: Not open for further replies. In other case when the hybridization is unsuccessful, the input beacon does not open up and hence there is no event of transformation of darkness to brightness and in such case the output is read as ‘0’ or ‘False’. The string str or file associated with fid is read from and parsed according to format. S-parameters like S11, S21 and S31 along with SWR are plotted. convert s2p - change three S2P matrix into one S3P matrix. Checks for ASCII any printable character except space. Over the past 140 years, Blackwoods has grown from being a small marine supply business on the banks of Sydney Harbour, to where we are today, Australia’s largest provider of industrial and safety supplies. When you want to force Notepad to save, say, "xyz. my frame rate drops also so i can notice some jumping and slow movement of my cursor. GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. But is that experiment overNeil AshtonLuke Shaw’s return to Man Utd side could mean a fresh sta. end RC time delay circuit v1 1 0 dc 10 c1 1 2. First, import the scikit-rf module skrf, as rf. csv) and to load the data into PC application software for further processing. Marius Pachitariu and Carsen Stringer released a Python version of their Suite2p pipeline for two-photon imaging. snp', where "n" is the number of network ports of the device or interconnect being described. isdigit() также может не работать (возвращаемое значение, которое не принимается int()) для байтовой строки на Python 2 в некоторых локалях, например, ‘\ xb2’ (‘²’) в cp1252 locale в Windows. Learn how to use python api numpy. 3 Simple File I/O. def gunzip_bytes (bytestring): """The :mod:`gzip` module is great if you have a file or file-like object, but what if you just have bytes. Reg: Reading an s2p file. S & T Bank products and services are customized to provide banking solutions that will meet your business's financial goals. 推荐一个超好用的python包folium, 专门用于地理数据可视化,官方英文教程教程点击这里,查看本文源代码请点击这里。 使用方法很简单,操作如下:导入包,创建一副世界地图import folium import pandas as pd # define the world map world_map = folium. 4(x86) Vine Linux 3. Get more from Cloudflare. read() # Read the contents of the file into memory. size is an optional numeric argument. The intended audience are those who have a working python stack, and are somewhat familiar with python. The script works on Python 2. One of the examples touches some code that I contributed, so I would like to take a look. snp’, where “n” is the number of network ports of the device or interconnect being described. rstrip(" \n ") print. pm and elapsed_wrap. In most modern EDA software, your data file does not always have to have the correct extension, it could be. If the phase has to be unwrapped, there is also a problem if not all of the values down to DC are known. All of the touchstone files used in these tutorials are provided along with this source code, and are located in the directory. GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. I have attached a *. How to Login to a Website as an Admin. The previous version of sendmail had supported a file called "hosts. We're pleased to offer these files to help you accurately simulate the performance of Coilcraft inductors in your circuits. You can use the block handle in subsequent calls to get_param or set_param. NamedTemporaryFile(suffix = '. tofile (fid[, sep, format]) Write array to a file as text or binary (default). HIV inhibitors with high purity are used in various assays for infection and other research areas, cited by top publications, some have entered clinical trials. • Skills in Perl, Python, Linux shell scripting • Knowledge of bootloader(u-boot) and Linux kernel boot processing • Exposure to using static analysis tools (Bullseye, Logiscope and Lint) • Exposure to using automated test tools like Bamboo • Ability to write test cases and verify test results is preferable: BE / BTech / ME / Mtech: 2. By convention, Touchstone filenames use a file extension of ‘. The sed program is a stream editor, and is designed to apply the actions from a script to each line (or, more generally, to specified ranges of lines) of the input file or files. Product Details. But however ping. The actual actions these functions are performing heavily depends on the arguments you pass to these functions, the load takes a CGNS/HDF5 tree and returns at least a CGNS/Python tree, while the save takes a CGNS/Python tree and writes (modifies) a CGNS/HDF5 tree. RSPLOT™ can read S2p files of different network parameters; however, it converts to and plots only S-parameters. The lack of something like Perl/Ruby's -n and -p switches is a barrier as well. I am new in Biostar, and I am learnig bioinformatics. The Cal Set that is saved could be a Cal Register or a User Cal Set. s2p| by reading it into an rfdata object, fitting a rational function object to the data, and using the freqresp method to compute the frequency response of the object. toc2cddb – translates a TOC file of cdrdao(1) into a cddb file and prints it to stdout toc2cue – converts a TOC files of cdrdao(1) into a. x; Long-running process will now release the Python GIL to better support Python multithreading. Julia can work with almost all databases using JDBC. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Considering the increasing prevalence of Python as a tool for scientific programming with NumPy as the lingua franca for numerical data, such a module seemed desirable; hence, plyfile was born. I can load and execute NanoVNA V1. The save and load commands allow data to be written to and read from disk files in various formats. How to read the s2p file from Agilent 5071B ENA and to save in pc ?, also need to run this continuously and to save s2p file in certain period of time ? Instrument Control (GPIB, Serial, VISA, IVI) Register. write("DATA")' File read. Results are gathered from NA by s2p file. If automations exist that expect the files to always be. After installing Kutools for Excel, please do as follows: 1. The file uunet!/index//ls-lR. 在很多领域被广泛使用,今天介绍的是python在仪器控制应用领域,python在仪器控制领域相关的书籍可以参考<真实世界的. pm and elapsed_wrap. Trace and BCMiner. This is useful for developing PICAXE programs on modern computer platforms such as Chromebooks. Forum du club des développeurs et IT Pro. A center press does a Raspbian shutdown. TigerGraph review: A graph database designed for deep analytics Highly parallelized and horizontally scalable, TigerGraph shines for use cases that require multi-hop analytic queries. So I decided to take this tool for a test drive with data collected from Scanbox. /pyplots/ (relative to this file). tgz use: –tar cvzf data. With 120 volts in we should see 12 volts out of the L 2 winding. Get started with 12 months of free services and USD200 in credit. Results are gathered from NA by s2p file. s2p, while a Touchstone file containing the data. It reads data from files, it may be used to do privileged reads or disclose files outside a restricted file system. jl and ODBC. jpg, Labview screenshot untitled2. ndim-levels deep nested list of Python scalars. It's nice that we can pass the opacity, set on the GEMMA website, straight into the layer in Mapnik. [email protected] PyVISA: Control your instruments with Python¶ PyVISA is a Python package that enables you to control all kinds of measurement devices independently of the interface (e. You'll see hands-on examples of working with Python's built-in "json" module all the way up to encoding and decoding custom objects. So CMYK color images cannot be saved as PNG image. If the phase has to be unwrapped, there is also a problem if not all of the values down to DC are known. NamedTemporaryFile(suffix = '. read()) Next we set up the layer and style. Lets load one from the directory skrf/data/. Seems I should be able to read the X & Y values of Marker #1 that is displayed on the upper right corner of the PNA screen, but I get the. My system is Ubuntu 11. Write data to a file. Name Last modified Size Description; Parent Directory - CUnit/ 12-Jul-2015 05:06 - Canna/. Python provides an inbuilt function for creating, writing and reading files. While the complete chip level design package can be found on the the the ADI web site, information on the card and how to use it, the design package that surrounds it, and the software which can make it work can be found here. the Python standard library is cross-platform and simple to use. Download the results either file by file or click the DOWNLOAD ALL button to get them all at once in a ZIP archive. This is done with the write method of a file object. Get started with 12 months of free services and USD200 in credit. Each record contains 1 stimulus value and 1 S-parameter (total of 3 values). Included a note regarding Perl and why it cannot be easily removed in Debian. i open up cmd : paste that first command and i get : 'pip3' is not recognized as an internal or external command,operable program or batch file. The first three lines of the text have some details about the data. You love working on complex technical products and have exposure to distributed systems, concurrency control, data replication, file systems, or SQL processing. This is 1st line This is 2nd line This is 3rd line This is 4th line This is 5th line #!/usr. You can double click on the label, select the alignment tab in the dialog box, and change the orientation to horizontal. You can find it at · · This program was written by Maarten Boekhold, Faculty of Electrical Engineering TU Delft, NL Computer Architecture and Digital Technique section · M. NamedTemporaryFile(suffix = '. The L 1 /L 2 inductance ratio of 100:1 provides a 10:1 step-down voltage transformation ratio. In order for Python to open your file, it requires the path. This data file format is also known as Touchstone format. ctf files into a tar file named data. GPIB, RS232, USB, Ethernet). 1 on my Windows 10 x64 laptop. With shape. It has a fixed, relatively simple scope of work defined by the idea of reading and examining each line of a file. php", including the quotation marks, in the Save As dialog box. The save will NOT check if the CGNS/Python tree was performed with the S2P_NODATA flag on, then you have to check by yourself that your save will not overwrite an existing file with empty data! The default behavior is to transpose array and dimensions of an array if this is not a NPY_FORTRAN array. Sometimes, it is a massive task to figure out how to do it exactly. As an example, reading self-identification from a Keithley Multimeter with GPIB number 12 is as easy as three lines of Python code:. Download the results either file by file or click the DOWNLOAD ALL button to get them all at once in a ZIP archive. 这两天在写爬虫,但由于前期只想将数据保存下来就行,后期直接进行预处理就行,但突然发现在批量预处理时txt文件明显比不上csv格式,所以我需要将我已经爬取的txt文件保存为csv格式。. SCons MinGW Shared library issue. Post awk, bash, csh, ksh, perl, php, python, sed, sh, shell scripts, and other shell. Other topics about Data Output. Write data to a file. /pyplots/ (relative to this file). Read After creating the role, assign this role to the user created above by going to Jenkins= ->Manage and Assign Roles->Assign Roles. s2p| by reading it into an rfdata object, fitting a rational function object to the data, and using the freqresp method to compute the frequency response of the object. QAG Norton Desktop Quick Access Group. In our first example we want to show how to read data from a file. You'll probably want to specify a somewhat larger minimum length, e. It is recommended that you move the PHNE_11395. The comma is known as the delimiter, it may be another character such as a semicolon. The lua code can be called from inside the. Many times, a programmer finds a reason to read content from a file. The previous version of sendmail had supported a file called "hosts. Learn how to use python api numpy. RunState = Object. I hope this will help u r solve ur problem. See the complete profile on LinkedIn and discover Rabih’s connections and jobs at similar companies. txt - which is actually. ~2400 manual pages, ~1350 one-line scripts and a bunch of general terminal tips. Mis Officer job opportunities to find and Jobs in Mis Officer, All top Mis Officer jobs in India. To improve the comparability of simulation results at varying temperatures, the initial status data of incident Cu atoms used in all simulations were read from an identical file via LAMMPS-Python interface. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: