Ggplot Remove Axis Labels

With different parameter settings, the diagonal can be replaced with the axis values and variable labels. Note that the color of the pseudo-axis-title has to. By saving the histogram as a variable it saves time as we do not have to recreate all of the code but only add the additional information. Below, we show the first 6 rows of the gapminder dataset. by parameters which do not change the calculations of estimates of survival surves. Recall that we can remove theme elements from a graph by setting them to element_blank(). There are two ways of using this functionality: 1) online, where users can upload their data and visualize it without needing R, by visiting this website; 2) from within the R-environment (by using the ggplot_shiny() function). The goal of this tutorial is to describe how to customize axis tick marks and labels in R software using ggplot2 package. You can hide the y axis, as in one of the examples, or manually scale it to match the number of dots. Our initial version of ggplot for python. Remove Axis Labels. ticks, to clean up the graph. Data ToothGrowth data is used in the examples hereafter. Plotting with ggplot2. facet_grid and facet_wrap, but with axis lines and labels preserved on all panels. position and legend. Description. Hi I am a beginner in R software and I want to create a graph in which I want to hide the labels of X Axis and the number on the axis but I want to display the tick marks. x=element_blank()). x=element_blank() in the theme() Removing the x-axis labels: ggplot(active_clients) + geom_point(aes(as. Without Line Br. Do not use c(0, 0) since the zero tick is in most cases too close to the axis - use c(0. colour maps to the colors of lines and points, while fill maps to the color of area fills. Everything is working fine, except I cannot figure out how to. Remove A Plot’s Axis Labels And Annotations. 4e+05, 5e+05, etc. There is one scale for each aesthetic mapping in a plot. background = element. top inherits from axis. By setting scales='free', the scales of both X and Y axis is freed. Understand and apply faceting in ggplot. rremove: Remove a ggplot Component in ggpubr: 'ggplot2' Based Publication Ready Plots rdrr. View source: R/axis-secondary. You see these plots all over the web and in presentations now and you can recognize the ggplot2 style. The ggplot2 package. Now using the sec. Basically, I'm looking for a way to remove x-axis label in some given facets. R allows you to also take control of other elements of a plot, such as axes, legends, and text: Axes: If you need to take full control of plot axes, use axis(). io Find an R package R language docs Run R in your browser R Notebooks. How to rotate axis labels of a ggplot2 plot in the R programming language. Unfortunately, I did not find an obvious way to do this in my first go around. Basic ggplot2. -90 rotates 90 degrees clockwise, 90 rotates 90 degrees anti-clockwise. One of: NULL for no labels. Remove ggplot Axis Ticks. I would like to combine 3 ggplot histograms. I am aware that I could construct the plots individually and put them together with e. Before you get started, read the page on the basics of plotting with ggplot and install the package ggplot2. Hi, I need to generate bar charts where the x-axis is a factor that includes a mixture of species names (in italic) and control treatments (in plain text). Now we can use the summarized dataframe in a ggplot statement and use the geom_bar layer to plot it. If a plot already has a title, subtitle, caption, etc. Basically, I'm looking for a way to remove x-axis label in some given facets. See Axes (ggplot2) for information on how to modify the axis labels. You should check out beanplots, which are basically violin plots, with superimposed boxplots and dot plots. facet_grid and facet_wrap, but with axis lines and labels preserved on all panels. How to remove tick label from y axis. I hope that you will turn what you did with the legend into a set of handy functions. 5 I want to remove the first origin label. 【R】How to rotate axis labels in ggplot2. ggplot2 is the most elegant and aesthetically pleasing graphics framework available in R. A minimum reproducible example is as follows;. Align multiple ggplot2 graphs with a common x axis and different y axes, each with different y-axis labels. labels: Labels for y ticks. In this article you learned how to set the axis limits of a ggplot in. This post will provide explanation on how to customize the axis and title of a plot that utilizes ggplot2. I have a ggplot-plot with facets. Hi, I need to generate bar charts where the x-axis is a factor that includes a mixture of species names (in italic) and control treatments (in plain text). An implementation of the Grammar of Graphics in R. Thereafter, wrap it around ggplotly and it should do the trick. May 16, Remove the border from ggplot and add the labels next to axis in same direction in R. The functions below can be used :. For each bin, the number of data points that fall into it are counted (frequency). Superb example. io Find an R package R language docs Run R in your browser R Notebooks. Remove quotes to use. There are a few different ways of modifying facet labels. y = element_blank(), axis. Tag: r,ggplot2,axis. Top 50 ggplot2 Visualizations - The Master List (With Full R Code) What type of visualization to use for what sort of problem? This tutorial helps you choose the right type of chart for your specific objectives and how to implement it in R using ggplot2. remove_axis. We have are utilizing the igraph package in R, which ultimately produces graphs of networks. ticks, to clean up the graph. This gives you the freedom to create a plot design that perfectly matches your report, essay or paper. How would I do this? In the image below I would like 'clarity' and all of the tick marks and labels removed so that just the axis line is there. Although creating multi-panel plots with ggplot2 is easy. rremove (object) Arguments. You can use continuous positions even with a discrete position scale - this allows you (e. Plotting igraph objects with ggplot2 I have been working collaborating on a project with Dustin Martin using network theory. The ggrepel library provides the geom_label_repel function which prevents exactly that. Watch Queue Queue. Theme elements can inherit properties from other theme elements. breaks: Points at which x gridlines appear. With different parameter settings, the diagonal can be replaced with the axis values and variable labels. Also try using xlim() and ylim() to increase the size of the plotting area so all of the labels fit comfortably. It provides a more programmatic interface for specifying what variables to plot, how they are displayed, and general visual properties, so we only need minimal changes if the underlying data change or if we decide to change from a bar plot to a scatterplot. Note, You can use legend. Your chart uses text in the source data for these axis labels. Analytical projects often begin w/ exploration--namely, plotting distributions to find patterns of interest and importance. Home Categories. ggplot x-axis tick marks labels. It goes into the principles. Adjusts the vertical position of each label. I'm trying to plot the attached graph using ggplot2 but I cannot get the y-axis intersect with the x-axis at 0 such that I would still see the points that have y values below zero. mtc, next we indicate in the aes() statement that the x-axis is gear and the y-axis is meanwt, and finally we add the geom_bar() layer. Here I provide the code I used to create the figures from my previous post on alternatives to grouped bar charts. text" for y axis texts (y axis tick labels). Another option is to use the ggtitle(), xlab() and ylab(). x inherits from axis. 6 Label Overlap. The goal is to introduce some simple 1D and 2D plots constructed using ggplot2. Now, this is a complete and full fledged tutorial. Skip the family=Gidole part if you do not want to change the font. Or copy & paste this link into an email or IM:. the labels are placed at integer positions). Setting it to "" omits the label, but still allocates space; NULL removes the label and its space. Key points: - larger text - white background - proper position/rotation/content of label or title or legend. Package ‘ggplot2’ August 11, 2019 Version 3. facet_wrap would normally print the y-axis tick labels for each panel, but still ignores the x-axis. x and y are the coordinates of the legend box. Now we can use the summarized dataframe in a ggplot statement and use the geom_bar layer to plot it. You can customize any element of the plot including fonts, colors and more! Below you do the following: Remove the x and y axis ticks and label using the theme argument. In this article we will show you, How to Create a ggplot Histogram, Format. We can use function geom_text_repel() from the ggrepel package. For example, axis. - plot_aligned_series. Note that, the default value of the argument stat is “bin”. Please take a look at the examples below to get the most out of ggpairs. This article describes R functions for changing ggplot axis limits (or scales). Get rid of axis tick and labels (theme(), axis. If you want to have the color, size etc fixed (i. Changing the order of items; Setting tick mark labels; Continuous axis. Note, You can use legend. We also remove the gray in the facet headings, strip. R it works fine. you will learn how to: Change the legend title and text labels; Modify the legend position. Sometimes the labels do not align perfectly. ggplot2 is a part of the tidyverse, an ecosystem of packages designed with common APIs and a shared philosophy. Plotting with ggplot2. Legends (ggplot2) Lines (ggplot2) - Add lines to a graph. Within theme(), set the following to element_blank(). Fixed ratio between x and y axes; Axis labels. justification in a theme() call. It makes sure each label dodges others whenever possible. dup_axis is provide as a shorthand for creating a secondary axis that is a duplication of the primary axis, effectively mirroring the primary axis. The article is structured as follows: Creating Example Data; Hide All Legends in ggplot2 (Example 1) Remove One Specific Legend with guides command. I have made some pretty cool plots with it, but on the whole I find myself making a lot of the same ones, since doing something over and over again is generally how research goes. theme_bw() The classic dark-on-light ggplot2 theme. As you can see based on Figure 2, the x-axis text was changed to a vertical angle. Plot will show up only after adding the geom layers. Learn more at tidyverse. You can tweak the aesthetics for continuous, discrete, datetime, or date variables. Breaking that down further: scale_y_continuous(sec. Describe what faceting is and apply faceting in ggplot. ggplot2 is a plotting package that makes it simple to create complex plots from data in a data frame. Home Categories. Plotting with ggplot2. Remove all of x axis labels in ggplot; Change size of axes title and labels in ggplot2; Increase distance between text and title on the y-axis; R ggplot2: stat_count. Remove ggplot Axis Ticks. How to remove axis labels: Bogaso: This is my first post, and i'm new to R and ggplot. Produce scatter plots, boxplots, and time series plots using ggplot. A blank ggplot is drawn. In a chart you create in Excel for the web, axis labels are shown below the horizontal axis and next to the vertical axis. For each bin, the number of data points that fall into it are counted (frequency). 10/17/12 6:32 AM. Within theme(), set the following to element_blank(). Describe what faceting is and apply faceting in ggplot. Without Line Br. This tutorial shows how to remove legends in plots of the R ggplot2 package. I'm using R and ggplot to draw a scatterplot of some data, all is fine except that the numbers on the y-axis are coming out with computer style exponent formatting, i. As you can see there are some weird labels/texts on the upper right part of the chart. By setting scales='free', the scales of both X and Y axis is freed. % rename(x=sampledate, y=depth, z=wtemp) # jsut a note here that the x interpretation step of 1 works with day data as it is using the # number of days. You should check out beanplots, which are basically violin plots, with superimposed boxplots and dot plots. The Y axis of the histogram represents the frequency and the X axis represents the variable. Modify the aesthetics of an existing ggplot plot (including axis labels and color). For example, on the x-axis, you can use lineheight=3,vjust=0 to move the x-axis title down and away from the tick labels. The first method, manual transforms of the data, is straightforward. scale_x_discrete(labels = "") is not correct here because you scale is continuous. The article will consist of one examples for the removal of axis information. axis ticks and tick mark labels can be removed using the function element_blank() as follow : # Hide x an y axis tick mark labels p + theme( axis. Legend position can be also specified using a numeric vector c(x, y). Basic graph. But when I was trying to adjust each 4 dimension using margin( ), I got no response when I adjusted parameter "r" and "l", the code is shown as follows:. x = element_blank(), axis. ggplot offers several default scales. If you want to remove the axis labels all together, use the theme() function. io Find an R package R language docs Run R in your browser R Notebooks. This is obviously unacceptable, so I want to get it to display them as 500,000, 400,000, and so on. We will use the “Computer” dataset from the “Ecdat” package looking specifically at the difference in price of computers based on the inclusion of a cd-rom. You see these plots all over the web and in presentations now and you can recognize the ggplot2 style. New to Plotly? Plotly's R library is free and open source! Get started by downloading the client and reading the primer. You can set up Plotly to work in online or offline mode. Now i want to change the labels in the plot to %. , and you want to remove it, you can do so by setting the respective argument to NULL. Build complex and customized plots from data in a data frame. always start by calling the ggplot() function. Plotting with ggplot2. This version looks good but the angled x axis labels still feel awkward. We don't care about the y values at all, they just clutter the graph, so remove the y axis labels altogether! scale_y_continuous(breaks = NULL) + Give the graph a good title, but remove the x and y axis labels, because the title will explain everything quite well. font color, and axis label position theme (axis. Reverse the order of a categorical axis in ggplot2 - reverse-categorical-axis. This second point is especially important that in the previous section, we mentioned that many things were missing (such as the axis labels). Codes are as follows. You can tweak the aesthetics for continuous, discrete, datetime, or date variables. More customized survival curves Focus on xlim and break. select: can be of two formats: a character vector specifying some labels to show. Name Description; name: Label for y axis. ggplot2 considers the X and Y axis of the plot to be aesthetics as well, along with color, size, shape, fill etc. ggplot2 is a part of the tidyverse, an ecosystem of packages designed with common APIs and a shared philosophy. Remove Axis Labels. While I'm happy with the graph in general, I'd like to know how to remove the second tick (without label) on the x axis. axis = dup_axis. How to remove y axis scale and label for box plot Showing 1-3 of 3 messages. You can set up Plotly to work in online or offline mode. Modifying facet label text. Importantly, the R-code will also be provided such that the user can recreate the graphs within the R-environment. This tutorial focusses on exposing this underlying structure you can use to make any ggplot. 7 Format Title & Axis Labels. One more comment: I either had to add a second input parameter. limits: Where x axis starts/stops. Plotting NMDS plots with ggplot2 The RMarkdown source to this file can be found here. This would remove all the vertical gridlines as well as x-axis tickmark labels. with ggplot2 Cheat Sheet label, alpha, angle, color, family, fontface, hjust, lineheight, size, vjust Three Variables m + geom_contour(aes(z = z)). The Urban Institute ggplot2 theme Source: R/remove_axis. To me, that’s the part of your code that I could most make use of (the rest of your post depends either on good data sources or on smart manipulation of quantiles; of course, you could also produce some good code about these aspects: an interface to your data sources, or smarter ‘cut. This tutorial shows how to remove legends in plots of the R ggplot2 package. justification in a theme() call. Continuous positions are numeric values starting at one for the first level, and increasing by one for each level (i. This page provides help for adding titles, legends and axis labels. Remove A Plot’s Axis Labels And Annotations. The ggplot2 package. axis ticks and tick mark labels can be removed using the function element_blank() as follow : # Hide x an y axis tick mark labels p + theme( axis. ggplot2 is the most elegant and aesthetically pleasing graphics framework available in R. It genera. Produce scatter plots, boxplots, and time series plots using ggplot. March 17, 2015 Type Package Title An Implementation of the Grammar of Graphics Version 1. Basic ggplot2. Note that, the default value of the argument stat is "bin". Setting range and reversing direction of an axis; Reversing the direction of an axis; Setting and hiding tick markers; Axis transformations: log, sqrt, etc. There are two ways to remove the axis label. This was primarily due to some space concerns I had for the x-axis labels. remove_axis (axis = "y", flip = FALSE) Arguments. But the plot conveys quite clearly the point I want to make: I wasted away almost half (!) of my week so far playing nethack when I should have been doing my PhD, which is much more time than I have spent on my PhD itself!. For example, the default is for ggplot2 plots to use column names as labels for the x- and y-axes of a scatterplot. Defaults to 1 for all labels. 5), color = "deepskyblue4") + theme_minimal()+ theme(axis. Watch Queue Queue. Chapter 1: Getting started with ggplot2 Remarks This section provides an overview of what ggplot2 is, and why a developer might want to use it. first of all, i really. adding x and y axis labels in ggplot2; Change size of axes title and labels in ggplot2; Remove all of x axis labels in ggplot; How to put labels over geom_bar for each bar in R with ggplot2; rotating axis labels in R. To map the levels of sex from Female==>Women, and Male==>Men:. The examples refer to the sjp. y; element_blank() will remove the title of the X and Y axis. However, the “scales” package provides a convenient rescale function, scales::rescale(). Removes axes and axes labels. A good point for a good data/ink ratio. Adjust Space Between ggplot2 Axis Labels and Plot Area; Rotate ggplot2 Axis Labels in R; Remove Axis Labels & Ticks of ggplot2 Plot; Change ggplot2 Legend Title; Remove ggplot2 Legend Entirely; Change Position of ggplot Title; R Graphics Gallery; The R Programming Language. The goal is to introduce some simple 1D and 2D plots constructed using ggplot2. x and y are the coordinates of the legend box. ggplot2 considers the X and Y axis of the plot to be aesthetics as well, along with color, size, shape, fill etc. Try using direction = "x" to limit label movement to the x-axis (left and right) or direction = "y" to limit movement to the y-axis (up and down). I would like to combine 3 ggplot histograms. y instead of axis. If you replace the labels with "" instead of removing them, the size should not change are there will be labels but nothing printed. You can also set axis and legend labels in the individual scales (using the first argument, the name). This tutorial focusses on exposing this underlying structure you can use to make any ggplot. font color, and axis label position theme (axis. They remove a LOT of elements. Remove a specific component from a ggplot. To do this we need to add an additional theme layer. Now we can use the summarized dataframe in a ggplot statement and use the geom_bar layer to plot it. In the first argument we indicate that the dataframe is summary. always start by calling the ggplot() function. There are two ways to remove the axis label. In the R code above, we used the argument stat = "identity" to make barplots. Various Manipulation around the legend in ggplot2. How would I do this? In the image below I would like 'clarity' and all of the tick marks and labels removed so that just the axis line is there. title label of axes ('element_text';inherits from 'text') axis. Contribute to tidyverse/ggplot2 development by creating an account on GitHub. Demonstration of dual y-axes (one y-axis left, onother one on the right)using sec. If you put in an "n", like in the command below, you can suppress the plotting of the axis. Though, it looks like a Barplot, R ggplot Histogram display data in equal intervals. In the third example, the labels are displayed at the bottom for X axis and at the right for the Y axis. par (tck = 0. x = element_blank(), axis. horizon plot in ggplot2. (I manually inserted the line break into "marking exams" so it wouldn't get cut off - not sure how to automatically do this). More details: https://statisticsglobe. You can easily add the main title and axis labels with arguments to the plot() function in R to enhance the quality of your graphic. Barplot of counts. text" for y axis texts (y axis tick labels). As you can see there are some weird labels/texts on the upper right part of the chart. The x-axis title is redundant, so we can remove them. "Alaska - California", "Colorado - Florida",. The horizontal axis must be manually corrected (using scale_x_discrete() or scale_x_continuous()) to reflect the implicit categorical variable identifying the axis. Welcome to the barplot section of the R graph gallery. For example, axis. axis labels every other facet. select: can be of two formats: a character vector specifying some labels to show. There are a several “canned” themes that come with ggplot that offer themes do change the way the plot looks without having to edit every aspect of the visual presentation of the plot. One small trick is to change the color of axis labels to color of the background to hide the labels. text" for y axis texts (y axis tick labels). In this case it is possible to position the legend inside the plotting area. How to remove axis labels Showing 1-5 of 5 messages. I created a reproducible example below. then specify the data object. x within the theme function. Plotting with ggplot: altering the overall appearance ggplots are almost entirely customisable. Sample ggplot. Creating plots in R using ggplot2 - part 7: histograms written February 28, 2016 in r , ggplot2 , r graphing tutorials This is the seventh tutorial in a series on using ggplot2 I am creating with Mauricio Vargas Sepúlveda. (3 replies) Hi all, For various reasons, I need to use ggplot instead of qplot for a complex figure. There is a beanplot package for R, but ggplot2 does not include a geom specifically for this. This one concern some manipulation of the legend in ggplot especially the legend title. How to remove axis labels: Bogaso: This is my first post, and i'm new to R and ggplot. This tutorial focusses on exposing this underlying structure you can use to make any ggplot. I have composed a plot in r using ggplot2. 025) plot (1: 10) axis (side = 3, labels = FALSE) axis (side = 4, labels = FALSE) How can I mirror x and y axis ticks on the top and right in ggplot2 ? There is annotation_logticks which can do this, but only seems to work well for logarithmic scales (as the name of the function applies). You want to be able to format those and polish […] The post How to format your chart and axis titles in ggplot2 appeared first on SHARP SIGHT LABS. First the underlying grammar (system) of graphics is introduced with demonstrations. text = element_blank( ). But, the way you make plots in ggplot2 is very different from base graphics. The ggplot2 learning curve is the steepest of all graphing environments encountered thus far, but once mastered it affords the greatest control over graphical design. We have are utilizing the igraph package in R, which ultimately produces graphs of networks. scale_x_discrete(labels = "") is not correct here because you scale is continuous. x = element_text(colour = "white")) Hope it helps!. If you're changing other scale options, this is recommended. But, the way you make plots in ggplot2 is very different from base graphics. R it works fine. This is especially useful when making boxplots grouped by factors with long character names. If you are using theme_bw() or theme_minimal() then change color of axis. You can hide the y axis, as in one of the examples, or manually scale it to match the number of dots. Reverse the order of a categorical axis in ggplot2 - reverse-categorical-axis. remove facet labels ggplot2 (5) Adding text to axis labels in ggplot A lot of the fussing around you are doing with annotate and the manual labeling in scale_x_discrete can be avoided if you give ggplot the data it needs. to remove the legend use legend = "none". ggplot2 is a plotting package that makes it simple to create complex plots from data in a data frame. R / cummeRbund : difficulty changing x-axis labels in gg / ggplot class while generating heatmap I am trying to generate the heat map plots from the cummeRbund package (see [p22][1]). In the example below, data from the sample "pressure" dataset is used to plot the vapor pressure of Mercury as a function of temperature. It could use a little more work, eg maybe add a white rectangle with annotate behind the age labels to mask the grid lines, change/remove the axis labels, but you get the idea. In this R graphics tutorial, you will learn how to: Remove the x and y axis labels to create a graph with no axis labels. title, which in turn inherits from text. This package allows you to create scientific quality figures of everything from shapefiles to NMDS plots. This tutorial is primarily geared towards those having some basic knowledge of the R programming language and want to make complex and nice looking. Axes (ggplot2) Problem; Solution. But the plot conveys quite clearly the point I want to make: I wasted away almost half (!) of my week so far playing nethack when I should have been doing my PhD, which is much more time than I have spent on my PhD itself!. rremove: Remove a ggplot Component in ggpubr: 'ggplot2' Based Publication Ready Plots rdrr. waiver() for the default labels computed by the transformation object. Can be a single value (applied to all labels) or a vector of values (one for each label). To change the text of the category labels on the horizontal axis: Click the cell that has the label text you want to change. For example, the default is for ggplot2 plots to use column names as labels for the x- and y-axes of a scatterplot. If the level attributes have multiple words, there is an easy fix to this that often makes the axis labels look much cleaner. component argument (available for all functions, but especially useful for this particular function):. See Axes (ggplot2) for information on how to modify the axis labels. In this case, remove the x. 4e+05, 5e+05, etc. If waiver(), the default, the name of the scale is taken from the first mapping used for that aesthetic. This tutorial shows how to remove legends in plots of the R ggplot2 package. Use a mix of legend. Now using the sec. ggplot2 is a part of the tidyverse, an ecosystem of packages designed with common APIs and a shared philosophy. We have are utilizing the igraph package in R, which ultimately produces graphs of networks. The first method, manual transforms of the data, is straightforward. A minimum reproducible example is as follows;. To construct a histogram, the data is split into intervals called bins. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: